All 5 categories are generalizations, but we need to start somewhere. Experiment when you’ve found a wine you like. Once you have started your journey go back into that wine store and speak to the staff.
They have probably tasted every single wine that they are selling, it’s a tough life for some, what they have to do for us, the wine lover! They will be able to direct you to a similar wine, within budget, or help you make that next step into the unknown.
A good option is to join a wine club. There are lots to suit all pockets. They have discovery cases, themes, some will have moneyback guarantees if you don’t like the wines, so you can’t lose. If they don’t and they have 2 bottles of the same wine and you didn’t like it, you can always gift it.
Start with what you like, fit things around your tastes and then experiment.
Remember that most producers will produce a range of wines at all price points. Try the next bottle up in the range. You can see if paying that extra works for you and was it worth spending the money for it. If not you know where to stop.
A good example is Rioja. Start with a young unoaked red like Campo Viejo Tempranillo, follow with the Crianza: Campo Viejo Crianza, then the Reserva: Campo Viejo Reserva and finish with the Gran Reserva: Campo Viejo Gran Reserva. These wines tell us the aging that the wine has been through; aging means longer to make, which means more expensive.
Rioja is the region and there are several varieties that are allowed in the wine, so each winery (Bodega, in Spanish) has a house style, like Beronia Reserva and Faustino V Reserva. If you like Rioja, experiment between producers and let your journey begin.